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Cần phòng tránh việc sắt thép bị ăn mòn

Theo thiết kế nhà xưởng, hiện tượng các kết cấu thép trong nhà như thép chịu lực hệ khung bê tông cốt thép, dây tiếp địa chống sét, cột thu lôi, cọc tiếp địa, các hoa sắt cửa, … bị gỉ, ăn mòn do tác động của môi trường, không chỉ mất thẩm mỹ mà còn rất nguy hiểm.

sat an mon Kết cấu sắt thép trong nhà bị gỉ, ăn mòn
Nguyên nhân: Do nhà thép tiếp xúc với không khí, nước (đặc biệt là nước mưa) nên bị ôxi hoá mạnh, gây ra hiện tượng gỉ, ăn mòn. Đối với kết cấu chịu lực có thể gây nguy hiểm cho cả căn nhà

Cách khắc phục: Biện pháp chống gỉ, ăn mòn tốt nhất là cách ly sắt thép với các điều kiện khắc nghiệt của môi trường.

Thông dụng nhất là dùng sơn. Đầu tiên là sơn lót chống gỉ. Ta thường dùng một loại sơn chống gỉ trong đó có Dioxit chì nên có màu da cam sẫm. Sau đó mới phun lớp sơn trang trí theo ý các nhà thiết kế. Sơn là để tránh ôxy hoá mà ôxy hoá mạnh nhất là nước mưa.

Đối với nhà kho, tốt nhất vẫn là bao phủ kín bằng bê tông. Bê tông là hỗn hợp trộn bởi xi măng, cát, nước và cốt liệu sỏi đá. Bê tông không chỉ làm gia tăng khả năng chịu nén cho thép mà còn tránh cho thép không bị ôxi hoá. Vì vậy khi đổ bê tông phải lưu ý bao trọn vẹn các thanh cốt thép, không để hở, lộ cốt thép ra ngoài, đầm bê tông phải đúng kỹ thuật, tránh hiện tượng bê tông bị phân tầng, tạo thành các lỗ rỗng trong lòng bê tông để nước có thể thẩm thấu qua, chẳng những gây thấm dột mà còn làm gỉ cốt thép.

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